It can be a single rocks, or also a combination of various rock types. The mountains block the passage of clouds, resulting in the precipitation on one side, whereas the other side receives scanty or absolutely no rainfall. These depressions are present between subduction zones and island arcs. Any soil, sediment, or sedimentary rock that either contains a high percentage of calcium carbonate, or is entirely made up of calcium carbonate, can be attached with the adjective “calcareous.” It mainly means that the geological structure contains a high amount of calcium. Geology Glossary - Definitions of Geologic Terms Geology is the scientific study of the Earth, the materials of which it is made, the structure of those materials, and the processes acting upon them. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Peat It is the lowest grade coal, and is formed because of partial decomposition of plant and animal matter, under varying degrees of overlying pressure. It is mainly seen in extrusive igneous rocks that undergo quick cooling to inhibit the growth of crystals. The factors that are altered include chemical composition, structure/texture, and mineral content of the parent rock. Acidic rock is a term that refers to an igneous rock, which is made up of light-colored minerals. It is studied to interpret the climate and depositional environment of that particular time when it was formed. This wave transmits energy in all the directions from the earthquake’s focus through the interior of the Earth. It is a dry bed or gulch that fills with water seasonally due to heavy rains. An extrusive igneous rock that is formed due to fast consolidation of magma, spreading over large distances is called rhyolite. Basically, this fault is a sign of tectonic extension, and hence, it is also known as extension fault. Like all specialized sciences, it has a vocabulary all its own. For example, the Thar desert in India. In this process, new minerals are formed due to the deposition of sedimentary rocks. The overriding plate of the subduction zone is stretched to a point of rifting to make the magma rise into the gap formed by the rift. This group is similar to basalt in composition, and is mainly made up of plagioclase, pyroxene, amphibole, and olivine minerals. It is present in the upper horizon of soil, where the soluble decomposition products are removed due to the movement of gravitational moisture. The Earth’s history helps us to understand the related climate change and how the present climate will influence the future. It is the deposition of sediments in a layered manner, such that the materials can be easily differentiated. It is a type of tectonic rock that is soft, has very small grain size, and is found near the faults. The sudden release of energy due to the movement of rigid rocks under the Earth’s crust, which causes the propagation of seismic waves towards the ground surface is called an earthquake. Geology is the study of the earth, which begins with the study of the three types of rocks — the building blocks of the earth and its features. What are the Different Types of Geology Tools. It can also be defined as the maximum angle, when such loose material is added to the heap and the material comes to rest. These are mineral grains that are large and eye-shaped in appearance. It is a type of physical or mechanical weathering, wherein rocks that were joined together are separated due to expansion of water. Etym., geos, earth, and ginoscoEtym., While with reference to sedimentology, it is an area with a large thick deposition of sediments. An aggregate of a commercially important minerals, along with other impurities is known as an ore of the mineral. The emission of chemical compounds reacts with atmospheric water to form sulfuric and nitric acid that mix with the rainwater. Faults result when there has been breakage in rocks and movement has taken place. Bed is the smallest part of stratigraphic rock series and is a layer of volcanic material or sediment that can be recognized from other layers. It started somewhere around 2 million years ago, and is still continuing till the present (according to some theories). It is the weathering or erosion of rocks caused by the sand particles that are carried by the wind. Granular minerals usually consist of feldspar or quartz, while flaky minerals are pyroxenes. It is mainly made up of alloys of iron and nickel, and is situated around 6,370 km below the Earth’s crust. Minerals that contain magnesium and iron are called ferromagnesian. Flash flood: Sudden flood of water, often heavily-laden with sediment, produced by sudden storms, especially in hot desert regions. This alteration takes place without melting of the parent rock. A division on this scale represents a ten-fold elevation in the amplitude that is recorded by the seismogram. This layer is on an average 35 km thick, and can be maximum 70 km thick in few large mountain ranges. One of the most important minerals to be found on our planet, quartz is can be formed in metamorphic, igneous, as well as in sedimentary rocks. It was developed by the geologist Norman L. Bowen, and it explains the process of evolution of minerals on our planet, especially in case of mafic magma. Words and definitions such as erosion, fossil, glacier, rocks, minerals, mantle, and topography. It moves rapidly and stagnates at alternate intervals of time, and hence, it is called a surging glacier. It is the branch of geology that deals with the study of earthquakes with the help of seismic waves, which are generated artificially or naturally. This layer is compact, impervious, and stiff. It is an important ore of aluminum. Also called secondary wave, it is a type of seismic wave, which makes the rock particles move in a perpendicular direction of movement, as compared to the direction of wave propagation. It is a type of silicate rock, and is also mined as an iron mineral. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Learn geology terms with free interactive flashcards. Both the Glossary and this Dictionary were prepared as a service of the American Geological Institute, a federation of geoscience societies united to provide information to the science community and … This process usually takes place in warmer or temperate areas, and due to the slipping movement, it is known as basal sliding. A seismic wave that travels or transmits energy through the body of the Earth and not along the Earth’s surface is called body wave. Certain geology terms refer to visible surface changes in the Earth’s crust. It is a plot or graph that shows the variation of discharge of water over time. Anticline is a fold in a rock and is convex-shaped. It is defined as the texture of volcanic rocks containing a large number of amygdules (almond-shaped vesicles filled by secondary minerals). The water level in the ocean below which calcium carbonate does not exist is called carbonate conservation depth. The composition of dacite lies between rhyolite and andesite. In this process, the speed of the subducting plate is more than the overriding plate. It is the by-product left in the nuclear reactor after the nuclear fuel has been consumed. Pahoehoe It is a type of basaltic lava flow formed due to quick cooling and solidification of lava. Pyroclastic It is a term that refers to the material, which is ejected into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption. An old/ancient scar left on the Earth’s surface which is circular in shape and is produced due to an impact of comet or meteorite is called an astrobleme. These structures are usually formed in metamorphic rocks as a result of exposure to direct pressure. 6789 Quail Hill Pkwy, Suite 211 Irvine CA 92603. It is a permeable and porous rock, from which natural gas or oil can be obtained. It is a dry part of land that is located at the margin of a water body like an ocean. A geology dictionary of geological terms from Caliche "Caliche" is a shallow soil or sediment layer in which the particles are cemented together by calcium carbonate mineral matter. It is a naturally formed arch-shaped rock formation that is a result of weathering or erosion. These sand fragments are held together with silicate material that acts as cement. Period, era, and eon are the three basic units or divisions of this scale. An igneous rock whose chemical composition lies between acidic and basic rocks is known as an intermediate rock. Paleosol A layer of soil that has formed many years ago than the present is known as paleosol. These rocks are composed of organic debris particles that rederived from preexisting rocks. Almost 80 percent of the Earth’s surface is covered by these rocks. The area from where stones and rocks are extracted is known as a quarry. They typically last over a period of years. It is a fan-shaped wedge that is formed by the accumulation of sediments left by a fast-flowing stream, when it slows down and spreads in a fan-shaped fashion at the canyon exit. It is a type of sandstone with a maximum percentage of quartz. Carbonates, iron oxides, silica, and quartz are some of the cementing materials. Period It is a time unit used in geology, which refers to a time period that is greater than an epoch, but lesser than an era. The factors that govern the severity or intensity of this process are concentration, velocity, mass, and hardness of the moving particles. A crack or fracture on the surface of a rock, along which displacement does not take place is called a joint. A rock is said to be of normal or positive polarity, when its magnetic field is same as that of the Earth’s magnetic field. It burns with blue flames and less smoke. It is a light-colored and fine-grained rock. There are numerous topics in the field of geology, some of which include oceanography, geoarchaeology, geophysics, volcanology, paleontology, and plate tectonics, just to name a few. This compression process changes the shape and orientation of a sediment due to the weight of deposition that overlies it. Geology Key Terms We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. An unconformity is formed due to the deposition of horizontally parallel strata of sedimentary rocks on eroded or tilted layers. The ground is saturated with water below the surface of the water table. The area below the Earth’s surface, where air and water are both present in the rock pores and soil is known as the zone of aeration. They are formed by intrusion of magma into preexisting rocks. Usually, these zones are very high mountain ranges. This ScienceStruck article will guide you with the definitions of the basic geological terms, thereby, helping you to know more about this subject. Coastal landforms, any of the relief features present along any coast, the result of a combination of processes, sediments, and the geology of the coast itself. This deposition leads to an angular discordance with horizontal layers that are overlaid. They are found in metamorphic rocks. It is a type of stream/river drainage pattern, which appears like dendrites that are joined to each other at acute angles. Permafrost Table It defines the depth of a region, where the maximum temperature attained is 0°C. This mass ends up falling into a water source, and usually the ablation of ice creates more icebergs. This fracture divides a rock into two planes without any relative displacement. Metamorphic Rock Facts: Fascinating Types of Metamorphic Rocks, A Fascinating Explanation of How Waterfalls are Formed, Extremely Easy Instructions on How to Make a Rock Tumbler at Home. It is a kind of volcanic rock that is rich in iron content. It is the upper mantle of the Earth that is present just below lithosphere. This mountain is situated in Nevada for storing high level nuclear waste. It is defined as the structure or arrangement of a class of minerals in a parallel manner, such that they form sheet-like layers. In this process, crystals are produced from magma and are separated from the previous magmatic fluids. Common Geology, Mining and Prospecting Terms Some geology, mining, rock, mineral and prospecting terms used in this field trip guide. This kind of landscape or topography is formed or developed in a region, where limestone and dolomite rocks are mainly present. It is the process in which the molten lava escapes through the Earth’s core and becomes cool to form hard rocks. This age can be of any term that includes geological events or related parameters. This classification is based on the physical and chemical properties of different types of soil. A sea vent formed due to superheated water that flows from the Earth’s crust to the ocean floor is called black smoker. It is also called talus glacier, and is an ice mass that contains rocks and other material with a layer of ice beneath the surface. These are located in regions where the temperature is too cold even in summer so that snow that was stored in the previous winter does not melt. This type of rain is produced by a combination of water present in the atmosphere and oxides that are released on burning of hydrocarbons. The power plant that makes use of wind turbines for the production of electricity is also known as wind farm. Geology, if taken up as a career, promises a very bright future. And movement has taken place biological and physical components of our planet that consists of the magma increases gradually due., glacier, rocks, minerals, mantle, and near the common geology terms of a range. This pattern is usually formed in metamorphic rocks plates wherein they interact with the help of a geological term point! During the Paleozoic era of earthquakes or nuclear explosions called jadeite and nephrite along. 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